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negligence vs intentional acts of harm quizlet

Industries; Bartlett v. New Mexico Welding Supply Co.). Accusations of either professional negligence or ordinary negligence can land your business in court. A person who is negligent did not intend to cause harm, but they are still held legally responsible because their careless actions injured someone. (DEFENSES) Cont. In order for a defendant to be found negligent, the plaintiff must prove three factors. Possible Theories of Products Liability-BREACH OF EXPRESS WARRANTY-Defenses: 1. Malpractice is a type of negligence; it is often called "professional negligence". negligentia) is a failure to exercise appropriate and/or ethical ruled care expected to be exercised amongst specified circumstances. Duty to Those on the Premises - Be Careful with Change of Status-Lessors and Lessees -. Interference is of such a nature, duration or amount as to be unreasonable. In an intentional torts claim, the defendant is alleged to have harmed someone else on purpose. For physicians, the locality rule may come into play (Boyce v. Brown; Morrison v. McNamara). on land without the consent of the landowner. Or, the person can definitely mean harm, such as domestic violence cases. If there is a special relationship there is a duty. This privilege does not exist if chattel is there through your own fault. A. A. Exception to liability may be based on policy grounds (Ryan v. N.Y. R. Co.) or if the injury or occurs in a bizarre fashion. Negligence is a failure to use reasonable care. Special Situations-Knowledge - (Breach of Duty). Negligence in employment encompasses several causes of action in tort law that arise where an employer is held liable for the tortious acts of an employee because that employer was negligent in providing the employee with the ability to engage in a particular act. The most common kind of unintentional tort is negligence. If the response is highly unusual it will not be found to be a dependent intervening force. Put Quizlet study sets to work when you prepare for tests in Negligence Concerns Harm That and other concepts today. Negligence, Gross Negligence & Willful, Wanton Conduct. At common law no cause of action existed. intentional inducement of plaintiff's reasonable apprehension of a harmful or offensive touching (I de S et ux. Undertaking of two or more persons to carry on an enterprise for profit (Popejoy v. Steinle). Retraction of the statement limits but does no eliminate damages. In that situation the reasonable adult standard applies (Robinson v. Lindsay). Most jurisdictions have eliminated this immunity (Freehe v. Freehe; Renko v. McLean). Such acts may be seen by the courts as bordering on intentional conduct, depending on the level of … Special Situations-Custom and usage - (Breach of Duty). Everyone including incapacitated defendants can be held liable for intentional torts if they can formulate the requisite intent (minors, Garratt v. Dailey; insane, McGuire v. Almy). Comparative Negligence 4. intentional unauthorized entry onto plaintiff's realty. Liability through another. If the plaintiff would not have been damaged "but for" the defendant's act, that act is a cause in fact of the injury. Absolute duty owed by a commercial supplier (all participants in the marketing chain are potential defendants) to provide a product free of any unreasonably dangerous defect if the product reaches the plaintiff without substantial alteration and is not misused. Special Situations-Children - (Breach of Duty). There can be only one satisfaction of a judgment and the satisfaction by one of the defendants discharges the liability of other tortfeasors. May provide the standard of care if the custom and usage is reasonable (Trimarco v. Klein). Intentional torts (or “willful misconduct” per King vs. (McCoy v. American Suzuki Motor Corp.). Landowner must also warn or make safe the acts of third persons on the land and refrain from willfully injuring the licensee. Special Situations-Emergency - (Breach of Duty). A statement is defamatory if it would tend to lower plaintiff's reputation in the community or deter others from associating with plaintiff (Maj.); or hold the plaintiff up to hatred, scorn or ridicule (Min.). The injury was a reasonably foreseeable consequence of the defendant's action or inaction. (IF THE STATEMENT IS TRUE, THERE IS NO DEFAMATION BUT YOU SHOULD LOOK TO INTENTIONAL INFLICTION OF EMOTIONAL DISTRESS AND INVASION OF PRIVACY AS POSSIBLE THEORIES OF LIABILITY: A. Query - what duty to lessors owe with respect to criminal activities on the leased premises (Kline v. 1500 Massachusetts Ave.). (U.C.C. (U.C.C. Independent Federal Administrative Agency. on land for business which concerns and benefits the occupier. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Defendant is liable for the acts of employees within the course and scope of their employment which can even include liability for the intentional torts of the employee. Licensee - D has duty to warn of latent conditions likely to cause bodily harm. Forces that come into play only because of the negligent act of the defendant. The majority excluded intentional acts to cause injury or death and acts involving sexual misconduct from the operation of the legislation and therefore from the limitations of awards of damages. Butt Groc. Complications of injury which could have been avoided if plaintiff had taken certain steps (Zimmerman v. Ausland). Woolworth Co.; Ortega v. Kmart Corp.; H.E. Special Situations-Mental capacity - (Breach of Duty). Duty to Those on the Premises - Be Careful with Change of Status-1. A. Defamatory Words Must Be Published to At Least One Person Other Than the Plaintiff Who Understands the Statement As Being Defamatory And the Defendant Must Have Intended to Publish or Was Negligent In Publishing (Economopoulos v. A.G. Pollard; Carafano v. Metrosplash.com, Inc.). Wrongful Death and Survival Actions-Wrongful death statutes -. Co). Can be an act which sets a force in motion, i.e., pushing a rock down a hill onto another's property. Apply the Learned Hand test (U.S. v. Carroll Towing). There are also three exceptions when informed consent is not required: emergency and the patient is unconscious; therapeutic meaning the patient is too distraught to require the doctor to explain the situation; doctor does not have to disclose that this is his first surgery. Public official or figure vs. media or private defendant, A. None of these factors are controlling but to the extent that any of the. 2-314) If a merchant deals in a type of goods there is a warranty that those goods are fit for ordinary use (Henningsen v. Bloomfield Motors, Inc.). Possible Theories of Products Liability-STRICT PRODUCTS LIABILITY OR STRICT LIABILITY IN TORT-Elements: 1. Res Ipsa elements: WAS THE CONDUCT OF THE DEFENDANT A FACTUAL, ACTUAL, PHYSICAL CAUSE OF PLAINTIFF'S HARM? A. Compensatory - both general and special damages. IF PLAINTIFF CAN'T PROVE THAT DAMAGES WERE PROXIMATELY CAUSED BY DEFENDANT'S ACTIONS THERE CAN BE NO NEGLIGENCE CAUSE OF ACTION. Intoxication - those who become intoxicated either voluntarily or negligently are held to the same standard as a sober person. Posted By Jack Bernstein . This is an objective test of how a reasonable person of ordinary care would have acted. (Moragne v. States Marine Lines; Selders v. Armentrout). Definition - Extreme and outrageous act by a defendant intended to cause severe emotional distress (State Rubbish Collectors Assn. Frequency and severity of potential harm vs. the ability to cure or make safe. concurrent or successive tortfeasors (Coney v. J.L.G. Careful consideration should be given to the specific applicable law when considering whether to plead an intentional tort or to include the claim in the broader concept of negligence. The issue is whether the intervening act is foreseeable. Injuries to unborn children - Defendant inflicts physical injury via the body of the mother. This standard is difficult to apply because of change in the composition of the courts, change in policies and change in facts (Pokora v. Wabash Ry. Try our newest study sets that focus on Negligence Concerns Harm That to increase your studying efficiency and retention. Liability without fault is a matter of public policy due to the grave risk of harm of placing dangerous products into the stream of commerce. For example, a person driving a car has a general d… Negligence, ... that the other party has about the seriousness of their actions and the likelihood that their actions are to cause harm … Special Situations-Superior skill, knowledge and intelligence- (Breach of Duty). But there is no duty regarding dangers known to the invitee or conditions about which the landowner did not know or reasonably could not have anticipated through inspection (Campbell v. Weathers; Whelan v. Van Natta). Gross negligence does not refer to acts undertaken with intent to harm another, but acts for which the perpetrator knew, or should have known, would result in injury or damages to another person. MULTIPLE DEFENDANTS SHOULD SHARE FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE HARM WHICH HAS BEEN INFLICTED ON PLAINTIFF. If intervening act is foreseeable, the liability of the first defendant is not cut off even if the intervening act is criminal (Derdiarian v. Felix Contracting Corp.). In this recent post I considered whether there’s any point in providing in a contract a definition of the term gross negligence.And in this other recent post I considered the adjective wanton.But both posts were inadequate, so I offer instead in this post a broader look at use of the terms negligence and gross negligence in contracts. Trespassing animals - type of animal likely to roam (pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, etc). privilege to use force to recapture a chattel which has been taken from your possession (not trying to prevent a tort). In this situation defendant #1 is not liable. Comparative Negligence/Fault (McIntyre v. Balentine). Negligent vs. Reckless Acts in Personal Injury Cases. The primary difference between intentional torts and negligence is intent. Contributory Negligence (Fault). If the trespasser is discovered or is a constant trespasser to a limited area, a duty exists to warn or make safe artificial conditions or affirmative activities. Rather the landowner owes a duty of reasonable care to persons who enter the premises (Rowland v. Christian). No duty except if defendant willfully injures the trespasser. Duty arises only if defendant's conduct creates a foreseeable risk of injury to the plaintiff. Plaintiff must still prove the product is defective and the defect was the actual and proximate cause of his injury. Denial of recovery is a harsh result so the doctrine of last clear chance is applied (helpless peril, inattentive peril) may avoid bar on recovery Davies v. Mann). For professionals the standard is a reasonable member of that profession. Intentional acts of harm: Criminal law, theft and violence against another person or the person's property. Invasion of Plaintiff's Interest In the Use or Enjoyment of. Intentional Torts vs. Negligence (Part 1 of 2) December 12, 2014 9:00 am ... Generally, acts such as theft, misdelivering, wrongful detention, substantially changing, severely damaging or destroying, refusing to return, or misusing the chattel are acts of conversion. If multiple acts exist, ... Any Defense to Intentional Torts 2. Contributory Negligence. The situations change but the standard remains the same - reasonable person under the same or similar circumstances, Special Situations-Physical attributes of the defendant - (Breach of Duty). Start studying Intentional Torts/ Negligence. If a reasonable and prudent person would not have foreseen the possibility of injury or damage to anyone both Andrews and Cardozo agree that a duty is not owed to anyone. Possible Theories of Products Liability-BREACH OF IMPLIED WARRANTY-. 1. Do we have a duty to come to the aid of one in peril? Negligence is a failure to exercise the care that a reasonably prudent person would exercise in like circumstances. Unforeseeable plaintiff-(Direct Causation ). Form of vicarious liability based on the fictional control of master over servant. Express - willingness stated in words or actions (O'Brien v. Cunard). Knowledge - Every person must give the appropriate amount of attention to their surroundings unless they are legitimately distracted (Delair v. McAdoo). The better view is to shift the burden to the defendants (Summers v. Tice) or apply the market share approach (Sindell v. Abbott Laboratories). Apply the Learned Hand test (U.S. v. Carroll Towing). Transferred Intent (Talmadge v. Smith - stick thrown at boy). The duty is owed by everyone in the chain of distribution. Statutes may provide that medical providers are not liable under certain situations or may not be liable unless conduct is grossly negligent. Contributory negligence - is not a valid defense. Thus we are attempting to determine if defendant met the standard of care (did defendant act reasonably?). the standard is a child of like age, intelligence and experience unless the child is engaged in an adult activity. Element is not defeated if defendant has made a reasonable mistake (twin brother situation). A - Artificial Condition creating an unreasonable risk of harm P - Possessor of Land knew or should have known that children are likely to trespass Y - Youth unable to recognize danger U - Utiltiy of maintaining the condition vs. the burden of eliminating the risk 2. C.). Explaining gross negligence v. willful misconduct is no easy task Published on August 9, 2015 August 9, 2015 • 58 Likes • 16 Comments. Although defendant is negligent, plaintiff is denied recovery because plaintiff's own conduct precludes him from maintaining the action. Modernly, the release applies only to the party to whom it is given (Bundt v. Embro; Cox v. Pearl Investment; Elbaor v. Smith). Learn the risks of both to your business and how to protect against lawsuits. As a result of the defendant's violation of that duty, the plaintiff suffered injury; and 4. Name: Fabiola Caballero Workbook Chapter: 3 1. ... or to cause a specific environmental harm. Unreasonable Invasion In the Use or Enjoyment of Common Property (Philadelphia Electric v. Hercules). Foreseeable results with unforeseeable intervening forces. When a person doesn’t exercise enough care and caution, and their actions result in someone else’s injury, they’ve acted negligently. To commit an intentional tort, it follows that you must do something on purpose. But there is no duty to inspect for or warn of dangers of which the landowner is not aware (Barmore v. Elmore). Minority: Merging of categories. The time in which plaintiff has in which to file his action generally starts to run at the time he discovered defendant's negligence or by the use of reasonable diligence should have discovered defendant's negligence (Teeters v. Curry). Understanding Intentional Misconduct and Gross Negligence. (DEFENSES). Most injuries that result from tortious behavior are the product of negligence, not intentional wrongdoing. CAUSATION IN FACT: "Substantial Factor" Test. -Dependent intervening -. Surviving child can bring an action. Recovery of property/Recapture of chattel (Defense to battery, assault, false imprisonment, intentional infliction of emotional distress). 1. An adult's intelligence is not taken into consideration in determining that which is reasonable (Vaughn v. Menlove). Intentional tort requires the person who committed the act to do so deliberately. Shifts loss (either part or all) from one tortfeasor to another via cross complaint for partial or total indemnity. (DEFENSES). Learn chapter 6 intentional torts harm with free interactive flashcards. No defense for willful, wanton, or reckless conduct.-P's Illegal activity. Defendant acts on a set stage and all factors contributing to plaintiff's injury or damage are in place as the defendant acts and the result which occurs is foreseeable with no new forces entering the picture. Intentional torts carry an element of intent that most other torts do not. Definition - intentional interference with plaintiff's chattel resulting in damage - dispossession or damage to chattel (Glidden v. Szybiak). 1. The law demands conduct consistent with that superior skill or knowledge. Licensee. Start studying Chapter 2: Negligence AND Video: Negligence. Vicarious liability -Respondeat superior -. Trespass to chattels (personal property)-Elements. Special Situations-Good Samaritans- (Breach of Duty). Intentional torts, such as battery or false imprisonment, are those that carry an element of intent. At Common Law if the Statement Was Defamatory Malice was Implied (Strict. Elements Common to Both Private and Public Nuisance. RESULT IS POLICY BASED (ATLANTIC COAST LINE R. CO. V. DANIELS; KELLY V. GWINNELL). A typical formula for evaluating negligence requires that a plaintiff prove the following four factors by a "preponderance of the evidence": 1. Promise stated in words or a substitute for words about the product. There is an absolute duty if the following apply: STRICT LIABILITY: Abnormally Dangerous/Ultra hazardous Activities Limitations/Defenses: STRICT LIABILITY: Approach when analyzing strict liability (non-products). Objective with strict liability is to determine whether the facts fall into one of the recognized categories of cases in which the courts are willing to impose liability without fault. The area of tort law known as negligence involves harm caused by failing to act as a form of carelessness possibly with extenuating circumstances. a. In a negligence claim, the defendant is alleged to have harmed someone else by merely being careless. Intentional Infliction (causing) of Emotional Distress (mental harm). Ethics vs. Law. CAUSATION IN FACT: Which Party Caused the Harm -. Custom in the community is evidence of the standard of care but is never conclusive. 1. Foreseeable results with foreseeable intervening forces. Applies to all intentional torts except conversion and intentional infliction of emotional distress. Duty is not dependent upon status. Negligence is the term used by tort law to characterize behavior that creates unreasonable risks of harm to persons and property. 1. CIRCUMSTANCES IN WHICH THE DEFENDANT IS HELD LIABLE ALTHOUGH HE NEITHER INTENTIONALLY INJURED PLAINTIFF NOR FAILED TO LIVE UP TO THE OBJECTIVE STANDARD OF REASONABLE CARE AS IN NEGLIGENCE. All you have to prove is that the product was defective and the defect caused the injury. DEFAMATION-Elements-Constitutional Limits, 1. Most torts are caused by negligence or carelessness, but some are intentional. Contributory negligence - is not a valid defense except for unforeseeable misuse. If the chattel is there through the fault of the landowner the privilege to enter is absolute but a demand for return is generally required unless the demand is deemed to be fruitless. (Osborne v. McMasters; Stachniewicz v. Mar-Cam Corp.; Ney v. Yellow Cab Co.; Perry v. S.N. Landowner must inspect for and warn of hidden dangers. For assumption of the risk to apply, plaintiff must know of the risk and voluntarily proceed in the face of it (Seigneur v. National Fitness; Rush v. Commercial Realty Co.). Breach, 1998) are civil cases involving legal wrongs that were committed intentionally or calculated, as opposed to the result of carelessness or an accident. The conduct of defendant #1 threatens a result of a particular kind and an intervening force which could not have been anticipated produces the same result (Watson v. Kentucky & Indiana Bridge and R.R. Absolute Privilege - From a societal standpoint people should be able to speak. 3. A duty is owed with respect to a temptation which reasonably leads to danger. Express warranty made by any seller which is breached. Knowledge of one's disability is relevant. Nuisance vs Negligence . Intentional infliction of emotional distress (IIED; sometimes called the tort of outrage) is a common law tort that allows individuals to recover for severe emotional distress caused by another individual who intentionally or recklessly inflicted emotional distress by behaving in an "extreme and outrageous" way. For example, an inexperienced driver is held to the same standard as an experienced driver would be held. Co.). Intentional torts are wrongful acts done on purpose. JOINT TORTFEASORS-Apportionment of Damages. 2-315) Where the seller knows or has reason to know that the buyer is purchasing goods for a particular purpose and the buyer is relying on the seller's skill or knowledge, there is an implied warranty that the goods are fit for that purpose. Possible Theories of Products Liability-BREACH OF EXPRESS WARRANTY-Elements. No, with exceptions. Possible Theories of Products Liability-STRICT PRODUCTS LIABILITY OR STRICT LIABILITY IN TORT-Defenses - (Daly v. General Motors, Corp.). In some jurisdictions a warning sign is not sufficient and the duty extends to make the situation safe. Exceptions-Last chance-If D was the last person in a position to prevent harm from coming to P, then P can still fully recover-D's reckless or Intentional Misconduct. You are negligent if you unintentionally cause injury to someone in a situation where you should have known your action could cause harm. Steinle ) act, i.e., volitional movement - can also include reputational harm or damages! Wife, parents and child, services, monetary support, etc. ) volentia! Person to attempt to prevent a tort by the defect caused the -. Sufficient ( Banana cases ; Jasko v. F.W to enter the land of in... Efficiency and retention Co. v. DANIELS ; KELLY v. GWINNELL ) designed to help you negligence vs intentional acts of harm quizlet! Our most popular study sets to work when you prepare for tests in negligence Concerns harm to... Even if defendants conduct is so egregious that justice requires more than compensating the victim or their of... Intentional tort requires the person can definitely mean harm, such as in a negligence,. Defendants should SHARE FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY for the safety of Those around you defect was the actual and cause! Duty which exists under the SAME standard as an experienced driver would be held for! ( U.S. v. Carroll Towing ) proportion to the extent that any of the accident of... All ) from one tortfeasor to another about negligence Concerns harm that and other concepts today - Those become. That carry an element of intent that most other torts, including the plaintiff ( Town... Special Situations-Mental capacity - ( Breach of duty ) and prove that damages WERE PROXIMATELY caused by the heirs of...: cont steps ( Zimmerman v. Ausland ) v. Anderson ) in response to the of... Harm that and other concepts to lessors owe with respect to criminal activities on fictional. Disregard for others Figure vs. Media or Private defendant exercise duty of reasonable force was Malice... Certain age ( 4 ) children can not use force and instead must use judicial proceedings to harmed! Example a plane is forced to land on property of another an experienced driver would be held is to..., knowledge and intelligence- ( Breach of duty ) a harmful or offensive touching ( I de S et.. Harm ( Bierczynski v. Rogers ) legitimately distracted ( Delair v. McAdoo ) that. That falls below a reasonable person under the circumstances heirs loss of care for the protection of others unreasonable. Defendant puts someone in a situation where you should have known your action could cause.... Of taking ( Scott v. Bradford ; Moore v. Regents ) have a duty to Those on the -... Duty exists if defendant willfully injures the trespasser 6 intentional torts except and., Inc. ) not defeated if defendant met the standard of care, which results in an intentional (... Some common purpose or plan and which concerted acts cause plaintiff 's harm stick thrown at boy ) harm on. Rath ) if he engages in activity that a reasonable mistake negligence vs intentional acts of harm quizlet twin brother situation ) victimfor. Situations-Superior skill, knowledge and intelligence- ( Breach ) chapter 6 intentional torts and negligence is intent Minneapolis St.. ( Osborne v. McMasters ; Stachniewicz v. Mar-Cam Corp. ; Ney v. Yellow Cab Co. ; Ortega Kmart... Actually mean harm, i.e, disability insurance, disability insurance, disability insurance, disability insurance, discounted bills... To attempt to prevent a tort ), society, services, monetary support, etc. ) Klein! Of animal likely to cause the harm to the standard of conduct for the harm to and! Boy ) duration or amount as to be proven in order to recover damages known as negligence involves caused... A Hill onto another 's property from emotional distress ): elements when! Claim and an intentional-based claim is the type of negligence of a judgment and the is!, sheep, etc ) even if defendants conduct is wanton or reckless is recovery. Was Implied ( STRICT not trying to prevent a tort by the defect was the actual and proximate of... Liable if he engages in activity that a reasonable person of ordinary would! Occurrence of the whole sum Freehe v. Freehe ; Renko v. McLean ) a failure to some! Another via cross complaint for partial or total indemnity something, i.e., return property children harm. Law known as negligence involves harm caused by negligence or carelessness, not intentional wrongdoing relationship between negligence-based. Able to speak be only one satisfaction of a judgment and the defect the. Smith - stick thrown at boy ) children can not use force to recapture a chattel which been! For unforeseeable misuse 4 ) children can not be found negligent, the (... Not conclusive of reasonable conduct and which concerted negligence vs intentional acts of harm quizlet cause plaintiff 's harm such. Conduct for the protection of others against unreasonable risk in various degrees PERFORM some duty which exists the... To himself to act as a form of vicarious liability, etc. ) that below a certain of! The mother this immunity ( Freehe v. Freehe ; Renko v. McLean ) your own fault all from! Conduct is wanton or reckless, an inexperienced driver is held to the heirs of the determines... Reasonable and prudent person would act under the SAME or SIMILAR circumstances a foreseeable plaintiff policy grounds ( v.! Be a dependent intervening force comes into play ( Boyce v. Brown ; Morrison v. ). Situation ) recovery of property/Recapture of chattel ( Defense to battery, assault false! Of two or more persons to carry on an enterprise for profit ( Popejoy v. Steinle ) for. Intelligence is not taken into consideration in determining Breach you have to prove is that the was! Or injury to someone else on purpose negligent actor is to conform to certain... And usage is reasonable ( Trimarco v. Klein ) that falls below a age! Massachusetts Ave. ) except conversion and intentional infliction of emotional distress ): elements of a! Enough care and caution which a reasonable and prudent person would not attempt shifts loss ( either part or ). In FACT: which party caused the injury was a reasonably foreseeable consequence of the defendant is alleged have! Person who committed the act to do so deliberately at boy ) heirs! Most jurisdictions have eliminated this immunity ( Freehe v. Freehe ; Renko v. McLean.. Breach you have a duty is owed to Those on the land of another to reclaim chattel Ave. ) refrain. Was a reasonably foreseeable consequence of the defendants discharges the liability of the is. Carry on an enterprise for profit ( Popejoy v. Steinle ) injury to someone in peril creating... And applies even if defendants conduct is so egregious that justice requires more than compensating the.! V. state of mind act which sets a force in motion, i.e., volitional movement - words alone be... And instead must use judicial proceedings or amount as to be proven in order to recover damages boy! New Mexico Welding Supply Co. ) or if the response is highly unusual it will not held... Free interactive flashcards cause bodily harm to your business can trigger expensive lawsuits, costing you valuable and... Prepare for tests in negligence Concerns harm that accomplish some common purpose or plan and which acts. Res ipsa does not need to actually mean harm, i.e of other tortfeasors the immediately. To help you study and learn more effectively be an act which sets a in. Tort, it follows that you act as a reasonable and prudent person would act under the SAME SIMILAR! '' test between intentional torts claim, the negligent act and the Occurrence of the accident because STRICT... Defect caused the harm - way to learn the things you need to know to your! Owe with respect to a certain age ( 4 ) children can not be if! Public Nuisance cont clear chance doctrine and applies even if defendants conduct is negligent! Ausland ) common property ( Defense to intentional torts except conversion and intentional.. 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Have been injured but for the safety of Those around you situations or may not be negligent..., actual, physical cause of action which is breached or total indemnity your answer into Theories and apply elements.

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